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Category: Civilization & Culture (Page 2 of 7)

A History of California: The American Period

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A common method is to take some cultural attribute which is the result of hundreds of years of institutionalized white privilege in the United States, and projecting this attribute as solely the result of the person�s individual, heroic efforts. For longer periods, the Maya identified an elaborate system of periods and cycles of various lengths. Even if you selected nine Tenets and went to another Ideology, you would still lose almost all of that progress and only be able to pick a couple of Tenets.

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Before the Pharaohs: Egypt's Mysterious Prehistory

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As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the women and children, and to bring them away, and to take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and other English, and one thousand fathom of wampum for damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to obtain it by force. Social structures, according to this school of thought, only exist as long as there are relationships between agents.

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Outlines of the world's historywith special relation to the

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In 1997 all three parts were published together in English translation as The Days. Tylor’s Primitive Culture articulates one of two major theories of culture to emerge around 1870. According to various esoteric sources, the first civilization arose 78,000 years ago on the giant continent known as Mu or Lemuria and lasted for an astonishing 52,000 years. GLOBE DEVICE are registered trademarks or trademarks of World Book, Inc.

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Cicero and the Catilinarian Conspiracy (Routledge Studies in

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Muslims not only wrote medical books, they also wrote a textbook about al-jabr (the Arabic word for algebra. (Doc 4) A Muslim mathematician studied Indian sources and wrote this... A good example of this proximity can be found in the characteristics of Spanish architecture. Let the right views become the torch to light your way. Although Iran’s Revolutionary Guard and the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Peshmerga had been helping Iraq against Sunni Jihadists, preventing them from taking over the strategic city of Kirkuk, the government in Baghdad appealed for broader assistance to preserve the country’s territorial integrity.

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Pontiffs: Popes Who Shaped History

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Scholars do not have sufficient information to define these early urban official buildings of the Muslims. Anthropologists thus distinguish between material culture and symbolic culture, not only because each reflects different kinds of human activity, but also because they constitute different kinds of data that require different methodologies to study. The dealers with whom they trade are Ethiopians; and these dealers sell to the Phoenicians skins of deer, lions, panthers, and domestic animals--elephants' skins also, and their teeth.

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Abridgement of Roman History

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With F E and antigravity technologies, those salubrious space colony ideas that Brian O'Leary and others advocated can be taken much further.� For starters, there would be little practical limit on the size and speed of spaceships.� The entire solar system would quickly become human civilization�s hinterland, and even the primary abode of space-living peoples. He struck me as altogether untrustworthy and perhaps not quite sane.

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Readings in the History of Civilization

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They succeed each other in series substantially uniform over the globe, independent of what seem the comparatively superficial differences of race and language, but shaped by similar human nature acting through successively changed conditions in savage, barbaric, and civilized life. (“On a Method” 269) The earliest stage of savagery featured largely in Tylor’s study of culture; the term itself derives from the Latin for forest-dweller, and at the time it had both neutral and positive connotations as well as the negative ones that remain today.

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The Utopia of Sir Thomas More: Including Roper's Life of

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Possession of writing was absolutely essential for enforcing contracts and keeping track of property. And this image of those two with the key in the studio seemed to me a most monstrous conception of fanaticism, of a perfectly horrible aberration. Consequently, culture can encompass anything that provides meaning or can be given meaning among a group of people. You seem to use them as if they were a sort of formula. Test your knowledge with National Geographic's Brainteaser quiz." - illustrated - From National Geographic - http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/kids/games/puzzlesquizzes/brainteaseregypt/ Cartonnage __ "Cartonnage is a type of cardboard-like material.

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From Early Man to Civilization: A Brief History of

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It loosened my grip on my mental processes. That’s the outward, offensive culture that is showing how attractive your culture is to the rest of the world.” “Our ideologies are Autocracy, Freedom, and Order. Creating the h uge biomass of land-based ecosystems meant that carbon was removed from the atmosphere .� Also, root systems were a new phenomenon, with dramatic environmental impact.� Before the rise of vascular plants, rain on the continents ran to the global ocean in sheets and braided rivers .� Every rainfall ran toward the oceans in a flash flood, as happens in deserts today.� Plant roots stabilized riverbanks and form the rivers that we are familiar with today. �Also, roots broke up rock, accelerated weathering, and created soils.� Plants break down rock five times as fast as other geophysical processes will. [258] � The forests and soils created a huge �sponge� that absorbed precipitation, which the resultant ecosystems depended on.� Vast nutrient runoffs from land into the ocean were stimulated by plants� colonization of land, which in turn stimulated ocean life.� The re efs of the Devonian were the greatest in Earth�s history and reached about ten times the area of today�s reefs, with a total area about equal to half of Europe, of about five million square kilometers (two million square miles). [259] Plants and trees created a �boundary layer� of relatively calm air near the ground that became the primary abode of most land animals.� Also, forests created a positive feedback in which moisture was recycled in the forests and kept them moister than purely ocean-sourced precipitation would. �Today, somewhere between 35% to 50% or more of the rain that falls in the Amazon rainforest is recycled water via transpiration. [260] � Transpiration also cools the plants via the latent heat of vaporization, as well as the resultant cloud cover. [261] � Transpiration, by the way it sucks water from the soils, maintains a negative pressure on soils and keeps them aerated.� Waterlogged soils cannot support the vast ecosystems of forest soils, so trees are needed to maintain the soil�s dynamics that support the base of the forest ecosystem.� Rainforest processes thus create positive feedbacks that maintain the rainforest.� Conversely, the rampant deforestation of Earth�s rainforests in the past century has created negative feedbacks that further destroyed the rainforests.� Forests we re a radical innovation that has not been seen before or since.� Trees were Earth�s first and last truly gigantic organisms, and the largest trees dwarfed the largest animals .� Why did trees grow so large? �It seems to be because they could.� Land life gave plants opportunities that aquatic life could not provide, and plants �leapt� at the chance.� Lignin, first developed for vascular transport, became the equivalent of steel girders in skyscrapers.� In the final analysis, trees grew tall to give their foliage the most sunlight and to use wind and height to spread their seeds, and in the future that height would help protect the foliage from ground-based animal browsers.� The height limit of Earth�s trees is an energy issue: the ability to pump water to the treetops. [262] � Arid climates prevent trees from growing tall or even growing at all.� Energy availability limits leaf size, too. [263] �Fro m an ecosystem�s perspective, the great biomass of forests was primarily a huge store of energy; trees allowed for prodigious energy storage per square meter of land.� That stored energy ultimately became a vast resource for the forest ecosystem, as it eventually became food for other life forms and the basis for soils, which in turn became sponges to soak up precipitation and recycle it via transpiration .� Trees created the entire ecosystem that depended on them.

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The History of Antiquity, from the Germ. by E. Abbott

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I cannot pull on in this world.” This is a mistake. On the rocky promontories of the Tichitt-Walata (Birou) and Tagant Plateaus in modern day Mauritania, they built what are considered among the earliest known civilizations in western Africa. During the Shang dynasty (1500–1000 B. Should the enemy appear when you are awake, it will not be very difficult for you to cope with him, if only you are sufficiently watchful. If she wanted to look on the embodiment of fidelity, resource, and courage, she could behold it all in that man.

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